ammonium nitrate explosion
Any carbon-rich fuelâpaper, cardboard, or even sugarâcan pair with ammonium nitrate to produce more intense energy. But Lebanon's Interior Minister said the blast was a store of about 2,750 tonnes of seized ammonium nitrate blowing up. If the name sounds familiar it's because the chemical is notorious. Ammonium nitrate was involved in the 1947 Texas City disaster, one of the largest industrial explosions in history. The deadly explosion in Beirut, and the reddish plumes of smoke that followed, showed telltale signs of an ammonium nitrate blast, experts said. Ammonium nitrate stored at site of massive Beirut explosion: Officials At least 70 are dead and more than 3,500 are injured, authorities say. There are several documented examples of deadly ammonium nitrate fire and explosion incidents in the past, some with large numbers of fatalities like in China in 2015 and in Texas in 1947. âThereâs a massive amount of energy given off very quickly,â says Stephen Beaudoin, a chemical engineer also at Purdue University. EPA Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response; Explosion Hazard from Ammonium Nitrate. The chemical is often used as fertilizer — and in explosives. Such investigations may take time. According to the Lebanese government, about 2,750 tons of ammonium nitrate fertilizer was stored in a warehouse on the Beirut waterfront and caught fire, later exploding. The ammonium nitrate never made it to Mozambique, the source said, and instead was kept in a container at Beirut's port for over six years before exploding earlier this week. In the Beirut explosion, the resulting shockwave moved faster than the speed of sound; cell phone videos show the impact washing over the city a few seconds before a sonic boom rumbles. It was carrying 2,750 metric tons of ammonium nitrate, an industrial chemical commonly used around the world as a fertilizer -- and in explosives for mining. … The explosion took place when workers used dynamite to break up ammonium nitrate that was caked together, a common practice at the time, according to Prof. Oxley. It is many times larger than the most powerful conventional airdropped bomb in the U.S. arsenal, which was used in combat for the first time in 2017. Oxidizers do the opposite: They increase the amount of oxygen molecules that concentrate in a space, which helps make other substances more flammable. The scale of the damage — from the epicenter of the explosion at the port of Beirut to the windows blown out kilometers (miles) away — resembles other blasts involving the chemical compound commonly used … Ammonium nitrate was also involved in that explosion. Die Explosion war noch im 300 Kilometer entfernten München zu hören. Nearby stores of … Auch die Druckwelle aus Beirut sei laut Medienberichten noch im 200 km entfernten Zypern zu spüren gewesen. Hence, the standard ammonium nitrate explosive mixture is termed ANFO, for an “ammonium nitrate fuel oil” mixture. Lebanon was already dealing with political and financial woes, due in part to the Syrian migration crisis and the coronavirus pandemic. The colossal explosion in Lebanon’s capital this week was apparently caused when more than 2,700 tons of ammonium nitrate detonated. It also destroyed Texas City in 1947 and the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City in 1995. Experts believe the cause of the explosion is linked to 2,750 tonnes of ammonium nitrate that had been stored at a warehouse at the port in Lebanon's capital since 2014. The Biggest Ammonium Nitrate Explosions since 2000. Die Explosion des Oppauer Stickstoffwerkes ereignete sich am 21. In 1947, an explosion in Texas City, Texas, killed at least 581 people and wounded 3,500 after two cargo ships carrying ammonium nitrate caught fire. The force of the ammonium nitrate explosion is provided by the rapid generation of gas as it breaks down. Investigators confirmed that ammonium nitrate was … The biggest ammonium nitrate explosion that has taken place was the Texas City explosion on April 16, 1947. Chinese authorities claimed the first explosion had been triggered after the heat of summer caused a highly flammable compound called nitrocellulose to spontaneously catch fire. It has some military applications as well. “Ammonium nitrate is derived from the reaction between ammonia and nitric acid. There were 2,750 tons of the fertilizer in the Beirut warehouse, roughly equivalent to 1,155 tons of TNT, which would produce a large enough blast wave to destroy most buildings within around 800 feet, and would shatter glass far beyond a range of 1.25 miles. Ammonium Nitrate consumption is broken down as 78 percent for fertilizer applications and 22 percent for explosives. The fertilizer arrived in the city more than six years ago aboard a Russian-owned cargo ship that made an unscheduled stop in the city. Lebanon explosion: What is ammonium nitrate, which authorities claim to be behind the blast AFP Washington, August 05, 2020 08:54 IST Updated: August 05, … Ammonium nitrate is the ammonium salt derived from nitric acid, a corrosive substance which is toxic when inhaled. powerful explosion that devastated the city. Images from Beirut reveal a … That bomb, the GBU-43 Massive Ordnance Air Blast, has a net explosive weight of 18,700 pounds or roughly 9.35 tons of TNT, according to data from the U.S. Army Defense Ammunition Center. If the ammonium nitrate in Beirut was stored in wooden or cardboard containers, it would have made the substance incredibly flammable, says Jimmie Oxley, a chemist at the University of Rhode Island. Stored ammonium nitrate is a major fire hazard . But for the compound to figure in an explosion of this magnitude, chemists and explosives experts say a lot has to go wrong. Yes. This recent tragedy is devastating, and unfortunately, it’s not the first time this dangerous chemical compound has caused widespread damage. Ammonium nitrate appears to be the cause of the huge explosion that has left large parts of Beirut ruined and at least 100 people dead. On April 17, 2013, an ammonium nitrate explosion occurred at the West Fertilizer Company storage and distribution facility in West, Texas, eighteen miles north of Waco, while emergency services personnel were responding to a fire at the facility. Given the reported amount, Oxley hypothesizes that a vehicle must have been used to carry the compound inside, and that could have contaminated it with oil or gasoline. It also destroyed Texas City in 1947 and the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City in 1995. The huge change in phase creates a shockwave.â. The huge explosion that rocked the Lebanese capital on Tuesday is thought to have been caused by ammonium nitrate. Here is the information he has gathered about the explosion in Beirut. “The human impact of it is the important thing, and it affected people a dozen kilometers away.”. Ammonium nitrate would only explode on its own if its temperature was rapidly raised to 400 degrees Fahrenheit. That partly depends on the enforcement of safety regulations, which can vary by country. The site, which belonged to … The captain closed the hold and pumped in pressurized steam. The monster explosion that destroyed a good bit of Beirut was caused by the detonation of more than 2,700 tons of the fertilizer ammonium nitrate – a ghastly amount of one seriously scary chemical. What sparked the explosion is still unknown. It was used by white supremacists to blow up the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City, Okla. in 1995. The chemical compound ammonium nitrate is believed to have been the cause of the devastating explosion in Beirut on Tuesday. Reconstructing exactly what went wrong in Beirut will be difficult, but Chavez says officials should look for evidence of improper storage, confinement, contamination, lack of ventilation, and potential sources of ignition. Videos captured the toll of the deadly blast in Beirut that killed dozens of people and injured thousands. 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